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Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide. Sauzier curtin. This paper presents a study into the potential of visible spectroscopy with chemometrics as an approach to dating blue ball tip inks on paper documents. Analysis of six inks left under various conditions found that the majority of those kept in the dark could still be matched to the source pen after 32 months of ageing. Conversely, the majority of those exposed to light exhibited rapid spectral changes that continued throughout the 32 month period. Partial least squares regression PLSR was used to generate dating models for inks aged with exposure to light. Evaluation using an external test set found absolute dating to be challenging for these ink deposits within the first 2—6 months of ageing. However, predictive accuracy was found to improve for long-term ageing, with two-year old samples yielding age estimates with a maximum error of 6 months. This rapid, non-destructive methodology could assist document examiners in the relative ageing or approximate age determination of questioned documents, as well as the identification of document alterations.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
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Dating Ink – Forensic science of dating inks fine tuned
The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability. If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years.
Comparing Writing Inks.
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Chemical Ink Dating
But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Over the past 20 years, no other field of forensic science has had greater impact on the detection of fraudulent documents than the scientific examination of writing inks. This paper traces the development of ink dating techniques from the s to Techniques used during this period are described and, when possible, illustrated.
The emphasis is on ink dating techniques used today, with discussion of the value and limitations of these procedures. View PDF. Save to Library.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Minimum requirements for application of ink dating methods based on solvent analysis in casework Lancet,
Expert witnesses who are available to consult and testify regarding ink dating may be found here. The consultants found through this page may provide reports.
There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.
There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools. The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis.
Ink Dating—The State of the Art
Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected.
Forensic Ink Dating is the chemical analysis of inks to determine the age of the ink on paper, or the date of introduction of the ink used on a particular document.
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Ink dating….and the CSI effect
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